The Tupolev Tu-154 (Russian: Tyполев Ту-154; NATO reporting name: "Careless") is a three-engine medium-range narrow-body airliner designed in the mid-1960s and manufactured by Tupolev. A workhorse of Soviet and (subsequently) Russian airlines for several decades, it carried half of all passengers flown by Aeroflot and its subsidiaries (137.5 million/year or 243.8 billion passenger km in 1990), remaining the standard domestic-route airliner of Russia and former Soviet states until the mid-2000s. It was exported to 17 non-Russian airlines and used as a head-of-state transport by the air forces of several countries.
With a cruising speed of 850 kilometres per hour (530 mph) the Tu-154 is one of the fastest civilian aircraft in use and has a range of 5,280 kilometres (3,280 mi). Capable of operating from unpaved and gravel airfields with only basic facilities, it was widely used in the extreme Arctic conditions of Russia's northern/eastern regions where other airliners were unable to operate. Originally designed for a 45,000-hour service life (18,000 cycles) but capable of 80,000 hours with upgrades, it was expected to continue in service until 2016, although noise regulations have restricted flights to western Europe and other regions.
In January 2010 Russian flag carrier Aeroflot announced the retirement of its Tu-154 fleet after 40 years, with the last scheduled flight being Aeroflot Flight 736 from Ekaterinburg to Moscow on 31 December 2009.
Since 1968 there have been 39 fatal incidents involving the Tu-154, most of which were caused either by factors unrelated to the aircraft, incorrect maintenance, or by its extensive use in demanding conditions. Also, few of the Tu-154 accidents appear to have involved technical failure.
Designer: Tupolev Design Bureau
Airline: Balkan Bulgarian Airlines
First flight: 4 October 1968
Introduction: 7 February 1972 with Aeroflot
Status: In limited service
Primary users: Russian Air Force/ People's Liberation Army Air Force, Air Koryo, ALROSA Airlines
Number built: 1 026
Cockpit crew: 5
Seating capacity: 114–180
Length: 48.0 metres (157 ft 6 in)
Wingspan: 37.55 metres (123 ft 2 in)
Wing area: 201.5 square metres (2,169 sq ft)
Height: 11.4 metres (37 ft 5 in)
Cabin width: 3.58 metres (11 ft 9 in)
Maximum take-off weight: 98,000 kg – 100,000 kg
Empty weight: 50,700 kg
Maximum speed: 913 km/h (M 0,86)
Range (fully loaded): 2,500 km
Range (with max fuel): 3,900 km
Service ceiling: 12,100 metres
Engine: (x 3) Kuznetsov NK-8-2U
Max. thrust: (x 3) 90 kN each
Max. fuel capacity: 47,000 litres
About the model:
Manufacturer: Herpa Wings
The actual aircraft:
|Author: Ken Fielding / Flickr|